ABBAHU or Avahu (c. 300), usually counted a second generation Palestinian amora. He is often presented as the disciple of R. Johanan who purportedly called him "Abbahu my son." He also is said to have studied with Resh Lakish (See simeon b. lakish ) and eleazar b. Pedat. Abbahu most likely lived in Caesarea, then the center of Roman rule and of Palestinian Christianity. He seems to have been an important halakhic figure and his aggadic sayings are significant in the fields of religion, ethics, and philosophy. Abbahu is presented in rabbinic literature as learned in mathematics, rhetoric, and Greek, which, we are informed, he taught his daughters. Tradition also endows him with good looks and physical strength and great wealth. It is reported that the Romans "showed favor to his generation for his sake," perhaps a token of the great esteem in which they may have held him. His access to government circles may have given him a special position among his colleagues. The Babylonian Talmud (Sot. 40a) tells us that Abbahu declined academic leadership in favor of abba of Acre because the latter was poor and debt ridden. This legend goes on to show Abbahu concealing his true reasons. Various passages also depict him in the following ways: He was a peacemaker even when others gave offense. He judged all men favorably and appreciated even a single merit of a sinner. He had special esteem for the scholars and taught that a scholar who had committed an offense deserving niddui ("the minor ban"), should be treated with consideration (TJ, MK 3:4, 81d). He enjoyed a position of honor in the community. He was an ordained judge, entitled to sit in judgment alone, but earned his livelihood in trade. He was apparently head of a group of scholars known as "the rabbis of Caesarea" and trained many outstanding disciples, among them the amoraim R. Jeremiah, R. Jonah , and R. yose . He enacted ordinances, issued proclamations, and introduced usages such as the now accepted order of blowing the shofar on Rosh Ha-Shanah (RH 34a). Because of his position within the Jewish community and his connections with the authorities he made many official trips, both in Ereẓ Israel and abroad. On such occasions he always deferred respect to the customs of the local community. His aphorisms include: "Where the penitent stand, the wholly righteous cannot reach" (Ber. 34b); "A man should never tyrannize his household" (Git. 7a); "Be among the persecuted rather than persecutors" (BK 93a); "The world endures only on account of the man who utterly abases himself" (Ḥul.   89a). A prayer ascribed to him reflects the times in which he lived: "May it be Thy will … to save us from the arrogance and harshness of the evil times which threaten to overtake the world" (TJ, Ber. 5:1, 8d). With regard to Christianity he said, "If a man tells you 'I am God,' he is lying; 'I am the son of man,' he will eventually regret it; 'I shall go up to heaven,' he promises but will not fulfill" (TJ, Ta'an. 2:1,65b). Similarly he explained the verse (Isa. 44:6) "I am the first" means "I have no father"; "I am the last" means "I have no son"; "and beside me there is no God" means "I have no brother" (Ex. R. 29:5). It is stated in his name: "it was ordained (some say, in Usha) that 'Blessed be the name of His glorious kingdom for ever and ever' be recited in a loud voice- to offset any false charges by sectarians" (Pes. 56a; Rashi explains "lest they say that we add something improper in a low voice"). Abbahu isolated the Samaritan priests in his town from the Jewish community and decreed that they should be regarded as Gentiles in all ritual matters. When the Samaritans asked him "Your fathers found our food and wine acceptable, why not you?" he answered, "Your fathers did not corrupt their ways, but you have yours" (TJ, Av. Zar. 5:4, 44d). -BIBLIOGRAPHY: Frankel, Mevo, 58b–60a; Weiss, Dor, 3 (19044), 91–93; Halevy, Dorot, 2 (1923), 350–6; Bacher, Pal Amor, 2; Hyman, Toledot, 62–71; S. Lieberman, Greek in Jewish Palestine (1942), 21–33; S. Klein (ed.), Sefer ha-Yishuv, 1 (1939), 145–8; Lachs, Samuel Tobias "Rabbi Abbahu and the minim," in: JQR, 60 (1970) 197–212; Perlitz, in: MGWJ, 36 (1887), 60–88; Alon, Meḥkarim, 2 (1958), 255–8. L.I. Levine, "R. Abbahu of Caesarea," in: Smith IV (1975) 56–76; (Simha Assaf)

Encyclopedia Judaica. 1971.

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  • Abbahu — ( he. אבהו) was a Jewish Talmudist, known as an amora, who lived in the Land of Israel, of the 3rd amoraic generation (about 279 320), sometimes cited as R. Abbahu of Caesarea (Ḳisrin). His rabbinic education was acquired mainly at Tiberias, in… …   Wikipedia

  • Abbahu — (en hebreo: אבהו‎) fue un talmudista judío, conocido como un amora, que vivió en la Tierra de Israel, de la tercer generación amoraica (hacia 279 320), a veces citado como R. Abbahu de Cesarea (Ḳisrin). Su educación rabínica la recibió… …   Wikipedia Español

  • Abbahu — Rabbi Abbahu war einer der bedeutendsten Amoräer der so genannten dritten Generation (um 290–320 n. Chr.) in Palästina. Er war einer der späteren Schüler Jochanans und auch Schüler des Jose ben Chanina, studierte mit Resch Lakisch und Rabbi… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Abbahu —    c. 300. Palestinian amora. Abbahu lived in Caesarea when it was the administrative centre of the Roman rule over Palestine. He was an extremely handsome and well built man but of great modesty. He refused to head the Caesarea academy in favour …   Who’s Who in Jewish History after the period of the Old Testament

  • Abbahu — (c.300)    Palestinian amora. He was the disciple of Johanan, and also studied with Simeon ben Lakish and Eleazar ben Pedat. He lived in Caesarea when it was the Roman administrative centre. He was an important halakhic figure, and his aggadic… …   Dictionary of Jewish Biography

  • AVIMI BEN ABBAHU — (beginning of the fourth century C.E.), Palestinian amora. He had commercial contacts with Babylonia (Ket. 85a). Of his teachings almost nothing has been preserved, but he is held up as an exemplar of filial respect, his father himself praising… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • ḤANINA BEN ABBAHU — (c. 300), Palestinian amora. Ḥanina was the son of the famous abbahu who lived in Caesarea. He studied under his father and transmitted teachings in his name, as well as about him (Kid. 33b; TJ, Bik. 3:7, 65d; et al.), but later his father sent… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • AMORAIM — (Aram. אָמוֹרָאִים), designation of the scholars in the Land of Israel and Babylonia who succeeded the tannaim and preceded (in Babylonia) the savoraim and geonim. (See Table: Heads of Academies.) The composition of the Mishnah by R. Judah ha… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • ḤIYYA BAR ABBA — (TJ: Bar Ba or Va; third and the beginning of the fourth centuries C.E.), amora. Ḥiyya was born in Babylonia, of a priestly family (TJ, Ber. 3:1, 6a) but migrated to Ereẓ Israel (Shab. 105b; BB 107b) where he was able to attend upon such… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • Noach (parsha) — This article is about the Torah portion Noach. For the Biblical figure, see Noah. Noach or Noah (נֹחַ Hebrew for the name Noah, the third word, and first distinctive word, of the parshah) is the second weekly Torah portion (parshah) in the annual …   Wikipedia

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